Kees Kousemaker flying high over Lambiek on the Kerkstraat in Amsterdam, an original drawing by Peter Pontiac for the move to Kerkstraat 78, 1017GN
Kees Kousemaker flying high over Lambiek in Amsterdam, a drawing by Peter Pontiac on the occasion of Lambiek's move to Kerkstraat 78

Kees Kousemaker was a Dutch comics store owner and comics scholar. In November 1968 he wrote history by opening Lambiek, the first comics shop in Europe, and still the oldest one in the world today. His enthusiasm was such that he collected various comics from all time periods, countries and genres. He wrote several essays and books about the subject and made his store a meeting place for (inter)national comics authors and fans. Kousemaker offered room for exhibitions and treated comics artists and writers with the same respect as artists from the "high art" world. He became the Netherlands' most renowned comics expert and an enthusiastic spokesperson of the medium. Thanks to his efforts the Dutch-language comics scene not only blossomed, but also received proper media attention, artistic interest and respect. Kousemaker's final passion project was the Comiclopedia on his very own website. Ever since its creation in 1999 it remains the most comprehensive encyclopedia of every possible comics artist in the world and all throughout history. 

Early years
Cornelis Kousemaker, known as Kees, was born in 1942 in Steenbergen, The Netherlands, during World War II, a very intriguing time for the youngest child in a family of lawyers and judges. He grew up in the village of Zeist, where he and his friends roamed the woods in search of any war relics. He was an avid collector and preservationist even at this young age, and would display the found items in the attic of his parents' home and invite friends to visit his "museum" - a dramatic undertaking since it was not clear whether a handgrenade, a centerpiece of his exhibit, was still unignited or not. It was one of the first of many exciting collections that Kees would share with the world. He also surprised family and friends by going to school at the Art Academy in Arnhem, instead of studying law. He later returned to Zeist as an art teacher, and studied sociology in Utrecht for two years. Around the same time he also met his future wife Evelien Willems.

Kees Kousemaker at the first Lambiek comics shop at Kerkstraat 104 near Leidseplein in central Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Kees Kousemaker in front of the first Lambiek location at Kerkstraat 104. The sign was designed and painted by Kees' college friend Onno Docters van Leeuwen.

Comics store Lambiek
As a child, Kees was captivated by the comics printed in local newspapers (many of them drawn by the Marten Toonder Studios). As many people did at the time, he cut them out for his collection. When his generation came of age in the 1960s, there was increasing interest in and demand for these old comics. During the 1950s comics had been slighted by educators, both in the United States as well as the Netherlands. Comics were considered evil, perhaps leading to criminal behavior or even slowing down the child's reading skills.

Kees Kousemaker at stripwinkel Lambiek comic shop in 1974
Kees Kousemaker presiding over the original Lambiek shop at Kerkstraat 104 in 1977.

When Kees was in his twenties, the appraisal of comics changed, and he personally became one of the major forces in this new respect for the comics medium. In 1968 he opened the doors of Europe's first comic store - Lambiek, named after the comic character 'Lambik' by Willy Vandersteen, and intended as a pun on some of the modern "boutiques" of the time. Vandersteen personally opened the store on 8 November 1968. Another comics legend, Frans Piët ('Sjors en Sjimmie') was coincidentally and the neighbourhood and also dropped in, being received just as hospitably. 

Kees Kousemaker at the old Lambiek comics shop store at Kerkstraat 104 in Amsterdam (around 1979)
Kees Kousemaker in the old store at Kerkstraat 104 (about 1979).

Lambiek soon became more than just a store. Kees was an active collector, not just of the old cut-out Dutch comics, but also of international comics, such as underground magazines, which found their way into the Netherlands thanks to Olaf Stoop's Real Free Press. With his keen eye for graphic excellence, Kees treated comics as art, which met sometimes with ridicule, but also with respect from the established art world. While Kees had interest for all kinds of comics throughout his life, his personal favorites were Marten Toonder's 'Tom Poes', Carl Barks' 'Donald Duck' stories, Frederick Burr Opper's 'Happy Hooligan', Winsor McCay's 'Little Nemo', George Herriman’s ‘Krazy Kat’, Willy Vandersteen's 'Suske en Wiske', Marc Sleen's 'Nero', André Franquin's 'Marsupilami' and H.G. Kresse's 'Eric de Noorman'. But he was also an early admirer of more modern artists like Nazario, François Avril, Chris Ware, Windig & De Jong, Peter Pontiac and Loustal.

Kees Kousemaker at the offices of Real Free Press in Amsterdam in the 1970's
Kees Kousemaker at the offices of Real Free Press at the Dirk van Hasseltssteeg 25 in 1970's Amsterdam.

From the very beginning, Lambiek has been a place where comic artists would meet. Kees was a very enthusiastic, warm-hearted patron and even though he was still very young (he was 26 when Lambiek opened its doors), he exuded a fatherly aura with which he supported and guided any comic artist that timidly stepped into the store, hoping to find interest for their work. Because of this, several artists have portrayed Kees in either homages or cameos throughout the years, including Peter Pontiac, Joost Swarte, René Windig, Jean-Marc van Tol, Derek Bauer, Lukas Moerman, Mau Heymans, Erik Kriek and Margreet de Heer.

Kees Kousemaker and his son Boris at the opening of Lambiek's second location, at Kerkstraat 78 in Amsterdam in 1979
Kees Kousemaker with his son Boris at the opening of Lambiek's second location, at Kerkstraat 78 (in 1979).

Kees (and later also Boris) advertised the store through special attributes, such the comic strip-like facade above the store (1968-1978, designed by Onno Docters van Leeuwen, in 1978 by Charlie Reuvers), the nowadays iconic 'Zip' logo above the store (also painted by Onno Docters van Leeuwen, 1980), the Lambiek doll (1981), the second doll on the bike (designed by Job Goedhart, later remade by Larie Cook) and the carrier cycle (designed by Jeroen Funke). But his biggest media stunts were the signing sessions and especially the exhibitions...


Heinz strip from 1991 featuring Lambiek and Kees Kousemaker, by Windig & De Jong.

Exhibitions
In the 1970s and 1980s many comic artists entered Lambiek, often as teenagers, with their self-fabricated comics magazines. Kees would always buy their work and put it up for sale in the store. Some of these artists were Windig & De Jong, Hanco Kolk & Peter de Wit, Peter Pontiac, Joost Swarte, Gerrit de Jager and Jean-Marc van Tol. They all established lifelong friendships with Kees, and as they rose to fame in the Dutch comics world, Lambiek was proud to present exhibitions of their work. Many of these artists have also made wonderful promotional artwork for the store. In 1976 a first, low-key exhibition was organized in Lambiek, based on the work of Jean Dulieu. Yet Kees' ambitions were higher and in 1986 he had his store partially cleared and redesigned to install an exhibition space. 

Kees Kousemaker with Will Eisner in 1980
Kees Kousemaker with Will Eisner in 1980

The first of these famous exhibitions took place in 1986 and featured RAW, the American comics magazine by Art Spiegelman, in which Dutch comic artist Joost Swarte was published. Swarte opened this exhibition and started a long line of exhibitions over the years, showcasing artists like Robert Crumb, André Franquin, Chris Ware, François Avril, Loustal, Will Eisner and many, many others.

A sketch of Lambiek's studio apartment by Adrian Tomine (June 1996)
Lambiek's studio apartment, sketch by Adrian Tomine (1996)

Three things stand out about these exhibitions: in the first place it was remarkable how Kees treated them as genuine Art Exhibitions, always making sure to invite the critics and patrons of the "real" art scene. Secondly, Kees hailed his comic artists with unequaled generosity and hospitality, often putting them up in the famous studio-apartment above the store, where they in turn showed their gratitude by making a drawing on the studio wall. Eventually, the apartment not only provided its occupants with a quiet place in the center of Amsterdam, but it also became a true Valhalla for any comics fan.

De Muur
Segment of the wall in the Lambiek Studio at Kerkstraat 78. It contained artwork by Eric Braün, Al+Flag, Jim Woodring, Pete Poplaski, Janet & Michael T. Gilbert, Willem, Barbara Stok, Eric Reynolds, Hélène Brosseau, Lian Ong, Roberta Gregory, Bob Fingerman, Sophie Crumb, James Sturm, Seth, David Sandlin, Ellen Forney, Jeff Smith, Dan Schiff and others.

Thirdly, the openings of these exhibitions were joyous occasions for which the whole comics community was invited. They would last until the last glass of beer and wine had been consumed, and often continued into the night at the café on the other side of the street. The highlight of any opening was the speech given by Kees. He was a gifted orator with a great sense of humor.

Kees Kousemaker performing a speech at the Drawn & Quarterly exposition at Lambiek in 1996
Kees performing a speech at the Drawn & Quarterly exposition (1996)

Comics expert
Kees compiled various books on comics, including 'Strip voor Strip' (1970), published by his own company De Morsige Roerganger, and 'Wordt Vervolgd - Stripleksikon der Lage Landen' (1980), published by Het Spectrum and co-created with his wife Evelien. The latter book provides a historical overview of comics, as well as an encylopedia of every known Dutch and Flemish comics artist and series up to that point - the embryonal version of the current Comiclopedia, so to speak. By then Kousemaker was so respected among comics artists that he was able to ask several icons to personally illustrate chapters: Theo Van Den Boogaard, Marten Toonder, Berck, Piet Wijn, Hans G. Kresse, Kamagurka, Peter De Smet, Martin Lodewijk, Thé Tjong Khing, Jef Nys, Joost Swarte, Willy Vandersteen, Bob De Moor, Marc Sleen, Bert Bus, Jean Dulieu, Willem, Frans Piët, Harry Buckinx, Daan Jippes, Fred Julsing and Gerrit De Jager. Everyone of them made a drawing of a particular letter of the alphabet, then decorated it with well-known comics characters whose name (in Dutch translation) started with that letter. It led to some unique drawings where famous artists drew in different styles and depicted other characters than their own. Kees also contributed many articles about comics to international publications and numerous references such as the Spanish historieta publication, 'Historia de los Comics' (1983-1984).

In 1993 a special exhibition was organized during the famous Comics Festival of Angoulême: 'Un Quart de Siècle en 100 Souvenirs', which was repeated in Blois a few months later, due to success. In 2003 Kees was involved in naming the streets in a new part of the Dutch city of Almere, which were named after Dutch comic characters or their creators. Nowadays this neighbourhood is named the "Stripheldenbuurt". In 2005, Kees and co-worker Margreet de Heer produced a playful book on Dutch comics, 'De Wereld van de Nederlandse Strip', in which over a century of Dutch comics was displayed, drawing upon the resources of the legendary collection of Lambiek.

Kees and Evelien Kousemaker at the book presentation of Wordt Vervolgd in 1980
Kees and Evelien Kousemaker at the book presentation of Wordt Vervolgd.

Lambiek.nl, the website
In 1977 Kees launched his own info magazine Bulletin, followed by the similar De Reporter in 1982. In the years before Internet both were a way to provide in customer service and current comics-related info. When the Robert Crumb exposition opened on Lambiek's 26th anniversary in November 1994, fans offered to start a website, so Lambiek became one of the first companies in The Netherlands to have its own site. Kees paid them in comics and the site grew to 80 pages in four years, but he had a much larger vision than that.

A webmaster and Mac tech appeared in 1999, thanks to his son David, which attracted many eager student interns and staff to write biographies and scan comic art for the Comiclopedia. Operating out of the artist apartment upstairs, Kees hoped it might showcase 2,000 artists in early estimates, before Wikipedia's debut, but after the article in Wired, a new strategy was created and that number was soon surpassed. The 10,000th artist was added in July 2008, and the Comiclopedia is still growing today. Since 2019 more than 13.700 articles are listed on the site!

Lambiek.Net crew on a busy Friday in 2003 in the comics holodeck at Kerkstraat 119 in Amsterdam (photo by Rick Webbmaster)
Lambiek.Net crew working in the small store at Kerkstraat 119 in 2003: Kees Kousemaker, Margreet de Heer, Bas Schuddeboom & Klaas Knol.

In 2001 the History of Dutch Comics (in Dutch and English) was launched as well as many smaller articles, making an excellent reference for comics researchers all over the world. The website was given shape through the invaluable help of webmasters like Rick Webb, Arjan Vlaming and Dirk Zaal. Between 2000 and 2005 the writing of the articles happened in collaboration with Margreet de Heer and Bas Schuddeboom, while Kees kept the final say. When Kees reitred from store activities in 2006, he became more involved with the website's content. He learned how to scan and collected many classic comics illustrations which he and Bas Schuddeboom added to the site almost every week for his last life years. Margreet had left the store by then, but around this period additional assistance was provided by Vincent Polverino and several international contacts. 

Kees and Margreet working on the book, De Wereld van de Nederlandse Strip
Kees and Margreet working on their book about comics (drawing by Margreet de Heer).

The store throughout the years
Kees was a driving force behind Lambiek, but many others kept the store and its reputation alive too. First of all his support and mainstay Evelien, who helped along with 'Strip voor Strip' and the 'Stripleksikon'. Hansje Joustra was present for the import and distribution of comics through his company Het Raadsel. Martijn Snoodijk was Kees' most productive co-author of articles and other publications. In terms of handymen Kees called in servies of people like Rob Ponsioen, Job Goedhart, Goof Mensink, Hans Jongens, Taco Seelemann, Fulco Smit-Roeters and Marko Otsen. A lot of artists have promoted Lambiek through adverts, but the official title 'house cartoonist' predominantly goes to Peter Pontiac. In the store itself long-term employees like Babes Plomp, Tammy, Flip Fermin, Hans Frederiks, Henk, Teun Leopold, Loes van Alphen, Martijn Daalder, Ima van Asbeck, Michiel Peters, Simone Koch (aka "Plukkie"), Yuri Bode, Toon Dohmen, Bas van der Zee, Boris Kousemaker, Rob Bolweg, André Snaar, Marko Otsen, Abel Schoenmaker, Lot Rossmark, Jurrien and Sebastiaan de Vries,  Charlotte Goede and Larie Cook stood behind the counter between 1968 and now. The longest-term employee of them all was the legendary Klaas Knol, who already visited the store regularly since the end of the 1970s and who became a friend of Kees. Between 1985 and 2016 he was the face of Lambiek, after Kees. In 2010 Knol even received the Hal Foster Award for his client-friendly and knowledgeable presence. 

Donald Duck weekly, Dutch 2500th issue, featuring a story about a visit to Kees Kousemaker's famous comic shop, Lambiek (artist unknown)
Donald Duck looking for a rare first issue at the famous Lambiek comic shop, in the 2500th dutch edition of Donald Duck weekly magazine (September 2000) featuring a story about 'Cees Sokkenstopper', our own Kees Kousemaker.(artwork by Mau Heymans)

The Lambiek store moved three times in 40-some years, but stayed on the Kerkstraat until late 2015 (first at number 104, then 78, then 119, then 132). The moves in 2003 and 2005 created a lot of anxiety, but Kees was happy when the dust settled and he was able to leave the daily business to Bas van der Zee. Van der Zee led Lambiek between 2004 and the end of 2006, after which Kees' son Boris Kousemaker took over the store. He is still the owner to this day.

Queen Beatrix embraces her Knight - Sir Cornelis Kees Kousemaker, in a tribute drawn by dutch underground artist Peter Pontiac
Queen Beatrix embraces Sir Kees, a tribute drawn by Peter Pontiac.

Recognition
The legendary comic shop and art gallery has won several prizes, including De Zilveren Dolfijn Award (1979) from the Belgian "strip klub", the P. H. Frankfurter Prize from the Dutch comics club Het Stripschap (1999), and the famous Will Eisner Retailers Award (1995), for Lambiek's unique contribution to the international comics world. The International Association of Webmasters awarded Lambiek.net the Golden Web Award in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. In 2006 Kees was awarded a Royal Decoration in 2006 for his numerous contributions to the Dutch comics field, and became a Knight in the Order of Orange-Nassau ("Ridder in de Orde van Oranje-Nassau").


Jean-Marc van Tol's 24 Hour Comic from 2005 was about the alleged murder of Kees Kousemaker.

Final years and death
Kees stayed active with the store and was involved with the site until the very end. In 2009, he was diagnosed with cancer. He died at home, in the presence of his wife and children, on 27 April 2010. Upon hearing of his death, both national and international press made commemorations, and comic artists worldwide contacted Lambiek to offer condolences and share their memories of this comics legend, a warm man who has touched many lives and has been a crucial influence on the Dutch comics scene - and beyond.

Legacy
Kees was at the vanguard of promoting comics as art, and was internationally respected as an expert in his field, inspiring and supported many artists over the years. Both the Lambiek store and this website are continuing in his spirit. His son Boris still leads the store. Bas Schuddeboom and his Belgian co-worker Kjell Knudde still expand the Comiclopedia with new articles to this day. 

Kees Kousemaker in his tuxedo at Hanko Kolk's Casanova exposition at Lambiek on the Kerkstraat in 1995
Kees Kousemaker (1942-2010) at Lambiek in 1995.

More about Kees:
Dutch biography in De Nederlandse Stripgeschiedenis

Series and books by Kees Kousemaker in stock in the Lambiek Webshop:

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